Depends on:

Leads to:

Constitution of a Boson

In our mechanism, a fundamental boson comprises two waves, each wave operating in one basis axis.

Contribution to Ontologies

The boson, by itself, is a pair of bound wave states that propagate together. When phase propagation is considered in a typical backrgound space, the propagation is not vector-like, but radial. A boson exists as a degenerate entity (without unique location, and disconnected from reality) until it can form a fermion under the required conditions. The state of a fermion is simply the set of states of the contributing bosons, with two of the waves being privileged in a coupled state. See article: physicality.

Quantifiable Attributes

Taking the wave state, we have:

  • For each wave,

    phase = φ

    value = cos φ

  • An intrinsic mass-energy ρ, which is the elliptical deviation from a circular oscillator,

    bρ = b cos φBφA = b e i φ B φ A

  • A superposition of two spin states, one of which is excluded from the next fermion if it shares the same state with another wave from the same source. When one wave (of two) is chosen as the reference wave (whether the wave trails or leads its partner), the spin state is the slope of the partner wave. This choice is determined at the next fermion.

    signspin = signφB/dt

Physicality of a Boson

Fig.1: Boson propagation. See also: time.

No position - part of an Uncertainty dual

Bosons generally have no position, and without having knowledge of their target, we can at best only describe bosons as having a phase offset from the source fermion. Only at fermion events may bosons (instantaneously) have a precise position: a point of zero size.

Immediately after the fermion event, the boson is radiated; in 3D space, it can be said to exist at all points a sphere, which expands as the wave propagates. If we consider ‘reality’ to be the fermions at which the bosons couple, then this sphere is disconnected with reality until it achieves the next fermion state.

This shows two extremes of one of the ‘uncertainty relations’ which map position and momentum as duals that are not measurable simultaneously: fundamental bosons have momentum and no position, and fundamental fermions have position but no momentum. Reality has defined positions, which is why we naturally have intuitive problems with ideas of indeterminate state or uncertainty.

Not a real particle

A boson is virtual, in the sense that it is not 'realized', is not 'identifiably instantiated' like fermions are, and is not guaranteed to be a conserved particle when examining localized coherent structures (see Standard Model definitions, below).

Only expressed at fermions

We may only know about a boson through its interactions at a fermion. In the spaces in-between fermions, we may have no notion that a boson exists, and cannot infer that it exists with any certainty.

We may calculate its value at any arbitrary point in classical space, but the usefulness of that point is limited if there is no fermion there, and it is questionable whether any such specific arbitrary points exist in any real physical sense. See also: vacuum.

It takes a minimum of two bosons to make a fermion event: only two bosons may contribute a quantization condition at that event, but any number of bosons may contribute to the non-conserved modulation state of the event.

Radial propagation

As a generalisation, bosons are considered to be radially emitted from fermion events (see the Time and Distance box below), until they are resolved as a new fermion event; thereafter, the resolved bosons can be schematically shown as directed vector lines. Before a target event is known, a circle (or sphere) is a good schematic approximation of the only site where a solution may occur (we say "approximate" because solutions are modulated by other bosons).

Fig.2: Boson propagation: radial until resolved.

Fig.3: Boson propagation sequence.

In fig.2, the propagating boson is shown as an expanding circle. At (c) is a fermion event, marked with a cross ×. To realise the boson, we would erase the circle and the cross, draw an arrow from the origin to the new position, draw a blob at the new position. The arrow shown at (c) is an external boson, needed to realise the propagating boson we have shown in steps (a) to (c).

In fig.3, we show the same process, for a special and simple case of a confined composite particle, where each fermion (small black dots, numbered), radiates two bosons (expanding shells, one colour for each boson, each shell disappearing when resolved), and two bosons create future fermions.

Predeterminism (philosophical)

Many problems in quantum physics can be simplified if we assume 'predeterminism', which implies that all events, past and future, have already been determined as being exact. This can be considered 'cheating', because experimental perspectives lack the complete description that would allow us to determine future events with certainty (one aspect of the wave states is unobservable), therefore we must rely on incomplete information to calculate possible futures: the Copenhagen Interpretation. We may circumvent this limitation in simulation.

Time and Distance

We say that propagation is proportional to phase, and it is usually sufficient to say that is proportional to time or to distance in most cases. The exceptions are trivial cases where sufficient solutions can be obtained without reference to external components. We'll be directing further study to this aspect, in case it yields some information about 'phase changes' at low vacuum density and small scale. [More...]

Standard Model definitions

We make a clearer and more specific distinction than standard theories, between virtual and real particles. In this mechanism, the boson is virtual; it has no position, and propagates information by exciting the fields and collapsing. The real particles are fermions, which exist as fermions only at fermion events, but not in-between the events.

Further, we are more strict about wave-particle duality. Bosons are waves, and fermions are particles. We can adequately resolve various wave-particle ‘anomalies’ (like slit experiments) using this propagation mechanism[12], without needing ‘many worlds’ or the less intuitive aspects of the Copenhagen Interpretation. Note that we are not being naive about the nature of quantum physics; we are instead finding new ways to describe the unintuitive aspects of it.

The term “boson” in the Standard Model refers to any integer-spin particle, whether virtual or real. We choose not to rely solely on this spin-dependent definition, and instead classify fermion-based integer-spin particles [sic] as ‘composites of fermions’, reserving the term 'boson' for a pair of propagating waves or a fundamental boson.

Further, our schematics and mechanism describe a purely quantum propagation process for fermions, and strictly speaking, the fermions do not themselves propagate classically. Instead, the constituent bosons of a fermion are emitted, and via a sequence of events, the fermion is re-constituted nearby. Thus all our propagators are bosons, which allows us to make simplified generalisations, and explain the environments that fermions require to remain real (e.g. to explain why single free quarks cannot exist).