Dependency on choice

Whether or not there is synchronicity depends on whether a quantization condition (fermion collapse) occurs only on the −b state, or any state. If 'any state', then synchronicity need not be a consequence of the mechanism.

Thus, if synchronicity fails scrutiny, then we can eliminate the −b constraint on wave collapse.

How our universe might be 'ticking'

We devised a mechanism for matter and vacuum, which describes most things well. In this speculative article, we explore one of the unusual emergent properties of the mechanism: a possible phase synchronicity.

  • Interacting matter has a 'synchronised tick';
  • There is room in the mathematics, for other matter (fermions) and energy (bosons) to exist 'out of phase', crossing the same space, without interacting with our own matter;
  • These other bosons may modulate our own bosons, increasing the probability of collapse into fermions;
  • The vacuum might be more complicated and extensive than we expected, and some of the other bosons may interact as required for dark matter.

Suggested prior reading:

Phase windows in a wave cycle

A boson behaves like an oscillator, and its waves have a repeating cycle while the boson propagates (fig. 1).

Fig.1: A boson as an oscllator.

As bosons propagate away from the position of their source fermion, the available waves each have a narrow 'phase window' in which they can interact with a similarly 'in-phase' boson, to collapse into a fermion. Even when widened by other bosons (see fermion), this phase window represents a very tiny fraction of all possible phase values.

For any two bosons to interact, their phases must be synchronised, to be within reach of this phase window. This may be with the help of the 'mass-energy' of the other boson, which offers a phase modulation (phase shift) that puts a waves into the b value required to collapse.

We established a rule,

6. Bosons collapse into a fermion where waves from two different bosons have value b at a unique point.

which is unremarkable by itself, but it leads to an interesting question about what happens when phase values are outside this window of collapse.

Nothing happens

While crossing bosons co-modulate, they don't collapse. They just continue to propagate, co-modulating at the shape of contact (an expanding circle). So bosons that are out-of-phase enough, even when modulated by other bosons, will not generate fermions.

Universal tick

Controversially, this implies that all the matter in the observable universe is synchronised in a ribbon-thin phase window, which repeats every Planck Time interval. This phase window, also a time window because of equivalence, corresponds to the mass, multiplied by the Planck measure. To give you an idea of how small these distances are, the mass-energy values are generally tiny, say 10−27, so the resulting phase window is about 10−27 Planck units, which represents a very short time (or distance) of about 10−60.

On the edge of the window

Bosons having a large mass-energy will modulate other bosons further, to make them collapse. This means that the 'Heavy' bosons affect other bosons across a wider range of phase values, than lighter bosons do. Thus, heavy bosons can be out-of-phase with a system, yet still interact with it. The lighter bosons, however, will fail to interact with each other if they are out-of-phase by more that their mass-energy.


Lighter bosons will have a lower modulation value, so a vacuum filled with these bosons will need to be within a narrow phase window, for this 'field' to self-interact or produce spontaneous quantum fluctuations.

Outside the window

An alternative scenario is that the vacuum is filled throughout the whole phase range, and we only see a tiny part of it, because our matter is synchronised within its small phase window. This offers a very different picture of the universe: one where we're seeing only 10−26 (or thereabouts) of the available energy. This makes it possible for there to be many other layers of matter and energy to exist in other phases, which we cannot observe directly.

Phase shifting

We assume that the phase modulation is preserved in the new fermion, which means that bosons are themselves not fixed in their absolute phase timing, and regions of the universe become more free to drift as directed by their environment and interactions. It also allows the phase distribution to evolve, and settle around our own phase value in a bell curve.

Dark stuff that interacts but we don't see

Given this bell curve, and the limited phase window that a boson may directly collapse, the above reasoning might help explain dark energy, and possibly dark matter, as phenomena that do not directly interact with 'our' system, but are somewhere on the bell curve, or are connected to ours by indirect interactions.

In this way, a vacuum flux may occupy a bell curve of phase values around our own, providing phase operators for bosons within our system, and therefore increasing the probability of interaction between bosons that would otherwise be just outside each others' phase windows. In other words, effects like gravitation are seen to increase without any direct evidence of a source. Galaxies might carry a halo in the phase domain, as well as the spatial domain.

Without necessarily thinking in terms of the energy accounted for by the Standard Models, we stated in our 2014 paper that:

If most matter initially has random phase (e.g. for instances of vacuum mass-energy, ρν), then probabilistically, only a small fraction of the vacuum energy, approximately 3ρν+ρm, interacts with matter having ρm.
— J.S. Valentine, Minimal Deterministic Physicality Applied to Cosmology [15]

We hope that further work will reveal whether this behavour, and the distribution of phases in the vacuum, agree with standard calculations on dark energy and dark matter.

Invisible layers

Given width of a bell curve across the whole span of the phase values, there may be up to 10^24 distinct layers, depending on the mass-energy values and their distribution. They would interact only through their phase operators, where any layer operates on all others, but will only couple to create a fermion if they are phase-synchronized. In reality, an exact sandwiching of close layers seems unlikely, but is possible from the maths we have done to date. It is unlikely that we will ever experimentally prove or disprove this scenario, other than by measuring a non-uniform rate of quantum fluctuations and fermion creation and decay throughout the universe, after eliminating all other known causes.


We have lots of work to do in this area. It's possible that we have a mechanism for dark matter, and dark energy, where they are both seemingly hidden outside our system of physicality, but interact indirectly.