Gravitational Waves from Black Hole Binaries

First edition draft. We'll be adding diagrams and calculations soon. See also:


A black hole

When we construct an extremely dense concentration of matter, we find conditions very similar to the classical black hole, but with some notable differences:

  • There is no classical event horizon. Instead, matter and energy have a small probability of escape.
  • While the high-mass matter is confined, it is the vacuum currents that are mostly likely to escape: sources of magnetism and gravitation.
  • Black hole evaporation is the natural endpoint, with a 'thermodynamic' tendency to distribute mass-energy evenly.
  • The black hole is not a simple abstraction: there is a possibility of 'hair', and the mechanism remains the same as outside the back hole. In other words, foundational parts do not change behaviour, and we do not need transformed algebra.

Phases of black hole binary merger

  1. Independence
  2. Orbit
  3. Merger
  4. Single black hole

Thereafter, the black hole will accumulate matter as the environment provides, and eventually radiate the lighter bosons while confining the heavier bosons, in notably longer evaporation stages with each tier of mass. We predict that the late universe will contain only light bosonic radiation, and black holes having a high-mass confined flux, like a giant exotic hadron.


Gravitational waves are difficult to detect, because they are changes of flux density.

For example, a very slow increase would be difficult to detect, even if it results in a high value of flux density. To detect a gravitation wave, we need an event that creates a sudden change in the flux density of vacuum, at the observer. We think the most likely events are those that involve black holes, particularly binary mergers.

Signals to look for

Leading and trailing vacuum interactions

The Independence and Orbit phases are a gradual transition, where the effects, measureable by gravitational waves, increase towards the merger event. Some measureable effects we predict:

If the disc is edge-on to the observer, and the binary is rotating rapidly (at relativistic speeds), we should see relative increases of flux from the incoming edge, and decreases from the outgoing edge. This is not a Doppler shift; rather it is due the leading edge encountering and radiating more instances of vacuum bosons.

Directional resolution will be needed to observe this effect directly; without fine resolution, the binary's position will seem to 'wobble', or have more positional uncertainty when the effect is greatest.

With positional resolution, a time-dependent signal may also become evident, where the leading edge has a higher-flux signal slightly ahead of a lower-flux signal. These will destructively interfere, leaving a mostly flat result with a slight onset peak at the beginning, and when these two signals (from the front and rear of a single body) are combined, there is a slight time-domain lead of a peak, followed by a trough. If the two bodies have similar mass, then the incoming and outgoing bodies will cancel, unless some positional resolution is available.

Echoes: close orbit re-emissions

Large bodies will re-emit vacumm flux. If a strong signal occurs at a large body, it follows that if there is another large body very close by, then it will re-emit a faint echo of this signal. If the echoing body is large, then the signal will be smeared along a time interval corresponding to the size of the body. While this degrades the observed signal, deconvolution processing may give clues about the properties of the echoing body, provided the preceding observed reference signal is representative of the signal received by the echoing body.

This echo will be difficult to detect, because there are two obstacles to overcome: the small proportion of the source radiation that triggers collapses in the echoing body, and the small proportion of re-emitted bosons that will escape without being confined. The detectable systems are those that are dense enough to generate echoes, without swallowing them up.

Relativistic binaries: radiation and shape

When composite structures like hadrons persist at non-relativistic speeds, they have fewer constraints than the structures that may form at relativistic speeds. Ordinarily, composites will generate their fermions in any direction, settling on average at approximately the same spot. Giving them a nudge (momentum) in the classical sense, distorts this structure so that solutions are more likely to occur in the direction of the momentum. We're saying that momentum is an emergent property of the structure of the composite, and that this can be influenced by changing the occurrence of the fermion events of the composite. Classically, this is 'applying a force', whereas we just attribute this to bosons that intercept the regular pattern on the composite, whether gravitation or electromagnetism.

Matter is accelerated by changing a solution in the composite particle's sequence of solutions, which then causes future solutions to carry the same distortion forward to future events. This is how momentum is conserved. Near light speed, it becomes more interesting. Firstly, if a fermion is to reach classical light speed, then every collapse of the massive boson component (of two) must be in precisely the same direction for subsequent events, which limits the opportunities for the vacuum component: it is more likely that the lighter component will be exchanged with vacuum rather than being strictly conserved by bouncing off a 'virtual antiparticle collapse' event with vacuum. Any fermion reaching light speed is therefore likely to be charged, and directing a magnetic flux. It is also likely that a magnetic flux will help a particle achieve light speed, since it provides the only realistic means of achieving the interactions.

Secondly, the composite receives more vacuum bosons at the front than the rear or sides, which makes an exchange with the environment (vacuum) more likely than an internal confined exchange.

Shape and gravitation

When we look at larger bodies, there is a problem that might prevent them orbiting each other too near light speed while conserving their spherical shape: the gravitation that changes the momentum is competing with the confined structure that conserves momentum.

The gravitational bosons generate solutions in place of the pattern-conserving bosons. If they are co-orbiting, then the gravitational influence will be from the direction of the neighbouring body, creating tidal distortions (individual events, pulling a fermion to one side, instead of forwards) that are likely to disrupt the solutions conducive to achieving light speed, and result in decoherence of any fragile confined composite structures that exist.

From the simple foundational rules, we can infer that dense bodies are likely to distort before merging, in two ways: if the composites near light speed, then their internal structure will elongate and compress sideways. Secondly, if gravitation is significant, it will cause decoherence of the composites that conserve momentum, structure, and macroscopic shape. Rather than being confined by the system, this decoherence may radiate bosons that escape, and become a tell-tale signal that a merger may soon occur.


It is possible that a significant distortion may de-focus the gravitational influence on the partner body. If the partner body is still coherent, then the distorted body might 'ring' the (likely larger) body, and radiate away, or be absorbed in a merger.

Binary merger event

Content coming soon.