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Fermion Event

A fermion event is a unique point solution of two waves overlapping concurrently with a value −b.

Bosons are spherical shells of zero thickness, and likewise, fermion events are points of zero size.

# Fermion constitution

Fig.1: Fermion Event.

Our mechanism has distinct definitions for bosons and fermions:

• A boson is a propagating, degenerate pairing of two waves;
• A fermion is a point event where two waves, from at least two different bosons (see exclusion), have phase value $-b$.

Compositionally, we can construct bosons and fermions from fundamental waves:

• 2 waves = 1 boson;
• 2 bosons = 1 fermion event; (more bosons can contribute; see fields).

This structure provides an ontological unification of waves and particles, providing satisfactory answers to problems in this area.

# Localization, uniqueness and uncertainty

Fermions are localized snapshots of the continuous journeys of bosons. Fundamentally, fermions and bosons are made of the same stuff, but have different uniqueness properties. The reference waves [fig.1] have a unique positional solution when their bosons become a fermion. In other variables they are indistinguishable, so couple by being co-localized. Conversely, bosons are distinguished by unique source and phase (but not space), are not coupled with other bosons, and have no unique spatial solution (Table 1).

While bosons are propagating from a fermion event, they are entangled, sharing common spatial properties. They may become disentangled after one of the bosons collapses; see exclusion.

 Property Pre-interaction Bosons Fermion Emitted Bosons Position Ambiguous (many shells) Unique Ambiguous (on‑shell) Origin Multiple (reset) Common Phase (reference waves) Proximate Identical Excluded Phase (partner waves) Distinct Unique Available Entanglement Not entangled Coupled Entangled

Table 1: Uniqueness properties.

## Uncertainty

This uniqueness can be expressed as an uncertainty relation, of position and the other conjugate-dependent properties (e.g. time, momentum).

Fermions are the only points at which we can observe matter, because these are the only points at which matter interacts or couples. At all other times, matter is propagating at light speed, and may couple again, whether observed or not. As we mention in the gravitation article, the mechanism limits opportunities for matter to interact, "…you cannot measure it more and more precisely; you'd just find fewer (or no) impulses within a smaller sample length, with gravitational interactions as background noise. Thus gravitational waves exhibit their own uncertainty relation, between the imparted momentum and the size of the sample."

# Conserved states

What we see classically as 'the same fermion' is not continuous at the quantum level. Instead, a persistent fermion state is one that is soon re-constituted after its bosons are emitted, in a cyclic process, using bosons that are the same as (or close enough to) the bosons that originally constituted the fermion. [more...]

# Standard model

We derive the fundamental fermions of the Standard Model from two mass-energy values: A with high value, B with low value.

The generations are counts of bosons collapsed at the fermion.

The up/down type changes with the weak interaction, from every fermion.

 Entity (masses) Gen 3 Gen 2 Gen 1 Quark (A, A) b, t s, c d, u Lepton (B, A), (A, B) τ μ e Neutrino (B, B) ντ νμ νe Collapses bosons 4 3 2 Collapses non-excluded waves 4 to 8 3 to 6 2 to 4 Collapses bosons of shell 1 2 2 1 Collapses bosons of shell 2 2 1 1 Collapses weak-broken bosons 0 0 to 1 0 to 2

Table 2: Generations and flavors.

# Interpreting matter

This mechanism gives us the ability to show, for example:

• How a fermion interacts with its locality's vacuum,
• How matter can decay into different forms, e.g. high-energy quarks into leptons and anti-neutrinos, or the decay of heavy bosons or composite fermions. We have the required ingredients to make sense of the constitution of such states.
• How matter can be re-encoded in high-energy environments like black holes.
• Quark-gluon plasma, and other loosely-constituted matter.
• Quantum foam, and other non-linear high-energy phenomena.
• Neutrinos: how that type of fermion propagates, why it regards most matter as transparent, and a weak interaction with vacuum to produce neutrino oscillation.